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The high-frequency oscillation of the ultrasonic equipment can activate the irrigation fluid in the root canal to achieve the purpose of rinsing the root canal. Ultrasonic irrigation can produce cavitation effect, acoustic current effect and thermal effect, play a good sterilization effect, help to remove debris in the root canal, and promote the decomposition of organic matter.
It can improve the flushing effect of complex root canal system and reduce the adverse reactions caused by root tip overflow. A large number of studies have shown that ultrasound combined with irrigating irrigation fluid significantly improved the ability to remove the calcium hydroxide sealant in the root canal. Ultrasound can generate high-frequency vibrations to increase the flow rate of the irrigant and the efficiency of calcium hydroxide removal in the root canal. In the curved root canal, the ultrasonic tip (such as small size file and smooth metal wire) can penetrate deeper into the root canal, even if the working tip can only reach the first bend of the root canal, it can effectively improve the removal efficiency of the calcium hydroxide in the root tip ; but because of its rigidity, the instrument can cut the dentin on the inner wall of the root canal, causing the root canal to shift. Therefore, in ultrasonic washing, a small ultrasonic working point should be selected for low power shaking and washing".